The role of extra lessons on the general administration of urban day high density secondary schools
Keywords:Extra lessons, administration, urban day, high density, secondary schools
This study investigated the role of extra lessons on the general administration of the secondary schools in Chegutu, Zimbabwe. The case study design was adopted. Interviews, focus group discussions and document analysis were used to collect data. Twenty-three participants, consisting 8 teachers, 6 learners, 6 parents and 3 school inspectors were purposively sampled. Findings revealed that the general administration of schools was affected by extra lessons. Extra lessons helped in raising the school pass rates. They helped build a good image for the schools and assisted in the reduction of the teachers` workload. However, the lessons created a dent on teacher professionalism. Teachers were accused of neglecting formal schoolwork by creating demand for extra lessons among learners. The lessons also contributed to indiscipline among learners. Relations between learners and teachers were also strained. The study recommended that extra lessons should continue as they reduced the workload for teachers and provided a conducive working environment at the school. It is prudent that MOPSE, school heads and parents monitor work given to learners during normal school hours to avoid the creation of artificial demand for extra lessons.
Baker, D. P., Akiba, M., Le Tendre, G. K. & Wiseman, A. W. (2011). Worldwide shadow education: Outside-school learning, institutional quality of school and cross-national Mathematics achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23: 1-17.
Baker, D. P. & Le Tendre, G. K. (2015). National differences, global similarities: World culture and the future of schooling. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Barrow, D. A. & Lochan, S. N. (2012). Supplementary tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some implications for policymaking. International Review of Education, 58: 405-422
Bray, M. & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow Education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policymakers in Asia. CERC Monograph series in Comparative and International Education and Development No. 9. Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank.
Bray, M. (1999). The Shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: UNESCO.
Bray, M. (2013). Adverse effects of private supplementary tutoring: Dimensions implications, and government responses. Paris: UNESCO.
Bray, M. (2011). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: UNESCO.
Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policy for what private tutoring? Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).
Cheo, R. & Quah, E. (2005). “Mothers, maids and tutors: An empirical evaluation of their effect on children’s academic grades in Singapore.” Education Economics 13: 269-285.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Davies, S., & Aurini, J. (2016). The franchising of private tutoring: A view from Canada. The Phi Delta Kappan, 88: 123-128.
Dawson, W. (2009). “The Tricks of the Teacher: Shadow Education and Corruption in Cambodia”, in Heyneman, Stephen P. (ed.), Buying your way into heaven: Education and corruption in an international perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Deke, J., Dragoset, L., Bogen, K. & Gill, B. (2012). Impacts of Title I Supplemental Educational Services on student achievement (NCEE 2012-4053). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
Flick, U. (2011). Introduction to qualitative research. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Hussein, M. G. A. (2007). Private tutoring: A hidden educational problem. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 18: 91-96.
Johnson, B. & Christensen, L, (2012). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative & mixed approaches. Los Angeles, California: Sage Publications.
Lee, C. (2002). Korean education fever and private tutoring. Korean Educational Development Institute Journal of Educational Policy, 2: 98-108.
Mboi, P.A. & Nyambedha, E. O. (2013). Implication of extra tuition in primary schools on pupils’ social life in Kisumu Municipality, Western Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 1:1-12.
Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mogari, D., Coetzee, H. & Maritz, R. (2009). Investigating the status of supplementary tuition in the teaching and learning of Mathematics. Pythagoras; 69: 36-45.
Moloi, M. Q. (2001). Mathematics achievement in South Africa: A comparison of the official curriculum with pupil performance in the SACMEQ (Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality) II Project. Retrieved from www.jet.org.za/.
Munikwa, S. & Mutungwe, E. (2011). Exploring the practice of “extra” lessons as offered in Chinhoyi Urban Secondary Schools, Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe. Journal of Innovative Research in Management and Humanities, 2: 26-35.
Parkinson, G., & Drislane, R. (2011). Qualitative research. In Online dictionary of the social sciences. Retrieved from http://bitbucket.icaap.org/dict.pl.
Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrative theory and practice?. SAGE Publications.
Sacmeq (2010). How widespread is the provision of paid tuition in school subjects? SACMEQ Policy Issues Series, Number 7, September 2010.
Silova, I. & Bray, M. (2006). The hidden marketplace: private tutoring in the former Socialist Countries. New York: Open Society Institute.
Sujatha, K. (2007). ‘Education among scheduled tribes.’ In R. Govinda (ed.) India Education Report. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Whewell, W. (2007). On the principles of English university education, London: John. W. Parker.
Yasmeen, (2009). Spreading private tuitions epidemic in schools. Journal of Educational Excellence, 4: 21-25.
Zimbabwe Government (1987). Chief Education Officer`s Circular No. 12 of 1987: Schools Psychological Services: Institutionalisation of the remedial programme dated 30 April 1987. Harare: Ministry of Education.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Author
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.