Genetic Methods for Isolating and Reading Chromosomes


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  • Aweza Sleman Qadir Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Raparin, Rania, 46012, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • Ahmed Shallal Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Raparin, Rania, 46012, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
  • Ibrahim Nazem Qader Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Raparin, Rania, 46012, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq


Chromosome, FISH, Giemsa-Banding, CGH, Hybridization


This paper offers a comprehensive examination of chromosomal abnormalities and emphasizes the pivotal role of chromosome banding in elucidating the intricate mechanisms of human cells. Various facets of chromosome structure and cytogenetic techniques are explored. The incorporation of karyotyping methods such as G-banding, Q-banding, and R-banding enriches our understanding of structural nuances and chromosomal anomalies. Moreover, by focusing on their applications in molecular cytogenetics, the research delves into contemporary approaches like silver staining (NOR), spectral karyotyping, (FISH) techniques, and genomic hybridization. The data is more accessible and comprehensible when presented in a systematic fashion and utilizing a table. In conclusion, this manuscript delivers a valuable overview of chromosome analysis for cytogeneticists, scholars, and individuals keen on expanding their knowledge of the intricacies of chromosome analysis.


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Published on: 2024-06-01

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How to Cite

Qadir, A. S., Shallal, A., & Qader, I. N. (2024). Genetic Methods for Isolating and Reading Chromosomes. Jabirian Journal of Biointerface Research in Pharmaceutics and Applied Chemistry, 1(3), 6–15.



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